Having the role of a natural migration path between Anatolia and Mesopotamia, Europe and Asia, Diyarbakir and surroundings have carried on until today various civilizations’ historical and cultural heritages, those that have kept their moisture throughout every era, ever since prehistorical eras.
Throughout history, the city, that has taken such names as Amida Amid Kara-Amid Diyar-Bekr Diyarbekir Diyarbakir, is located in the middle part of Anatolia region at the north of Mesopotamia, al-Jazar.
It has been understood with the archeological researches, that there have been settlemnts in caves at Dıyarbakir and surroundings during Paleolithic and Mesolithic eras. Hilar Caves, close to Ergani, has faced settlements since Paleolithic eras until and Roman era 1-5 A.C. Being one of the oldest settlement places of Anatolia, Hassuni Caves, close to Silvan, was used as settlement area in Mesolithic era, kept its settlement feature during Antic eras especially at Christianity’s first years and in Middle Era.
Cayonu Mountainpeek, who has given the most beautiful example of the oldest farmer village society of Anatolia, close to Ergani, with its history of 10.000 years, lights not only our region’s history but World civilization history as well. With its history dating back to 9.300 B.C., Cayonu, where first settlements of city civilizations was set, is an important historical inflection with its nomadism to settled village life, hunting and gathering to nutrition production.
In the excavation studies carried out in Uctepe Mound, close to Diyarbakir’s Bismil Village, layers belonging to Assyrian Hellenistic and Roman Empires eras have been detected.
In recent years, with the enlightment of archeological studies carried out in Bismil, it has been seen that Kortipe, which dates back to 12.000 years, is one of the earliest settlement places in Neareast. When we take a look at Diyarbakir’s city center’s history, we see that in 3.000 B.C. Hurris-Mitanis were dominant in the city. After Hurris-Mitanis, that carried on dominance until 1260 B.C. 33, different civilizations had dominance on Diyarbakir, respectively: Assyrians, Aramaeans, Urartus, Scythians, Meds, Persians, Macedonians, Seleucids, Parts, the Great Tigran Administiration, Romans, Sassanids, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Şeyhoguls, Hamdanis, Mervanis, Seljuks, İnaloğuls, Nisanoğuls, Artukids, Eyyübis, Mongols, Akkoyunlus, Safavids and Ottomans.
Among these civilizations, the ones that had left the most historical monuments and marks in Diyarbakir are Romans, Abbasis, Mervanis, Seljuks, Artuklus, Christians and Ottomans. Diyarbakir has come until today with a mutual cultural heritage of rich historical and cultural values of not only Roman-Byzantine but also Muslim Persian Arab and Turk states. We can see, especially on walls, in the liveliest form of civilizations’ marks with tablets, decorations, figures, doors, or enormous bastions.
Diyarbakir, which has welcomed many cultures, has also become a geography where many thoughts man, artists, and scientists, who were brought up by those civilizations, have grown up in. It has become home to many important figures who has had fame in different areas such as: those who have been the most important poets in Turkish Literature as Cahit Sitki Taranci, Sezai Karakoc, Ali Emri, Suleiman Nazif; Ziya Gokalp, the most important delegates of our Thinking World; Nesimi, Divan Literature’s poet; Orhan Asena, theatre play writer; al-Jazar who is the most famous scientist and first man to build a robot.