Diyarbakir, an important cultural city, has been accepted as the center of cultural and economic actives of each era’s great civilizations. Located on east-west and north-south trade roads’ most important junction points, Diyarbakir, has not lost its importance both in pre Islam eras and after Islam eras, and has survived until today with maintaining its importance. The city that has taken names such as Amida, Amid, Kara-Amid, Diyar-Bekr, Diyarbekir, Diyarbakır throughout history, is located in the middle part of Mesopotamia’s South in Anatolia region, Elcezire. It has been understood by archeological researches that in Paleolithic stone and Mesolithic eras there have been settlements in caves in Dıyarbakir and surroundings. Hilar Caves, close to Ergani, have come across settlements since Paleolithic eras, and settlements continued until Roman era 1-5 A.C. Hassuni Caves, close to Silvan, were used as settlement places during Mesolithic eras, it kept its settlement feature especially during Christianity’s first years and in Middle Era, it is one of the oldest cave settlement places’ of Anatolia.
Cayonu Mountain peak, given the most beautiful example of the oldest farmer village society of Anatolia, close to Ergani, with its history of 10.000 years, lights not only our region’s history but World civilization history as well. With its history dating back to 9.300 B.C., Cayonu, where first steps of city civilizations was set, is an important historical inflection with its nomadism to settled village life, hunting to nutrition production. In the excavation studies carried out in Uctepe Mound, close to Diyarbakir’s Bismil Village, layers belonging to Assyrian Hellenistic and Roman Empires eras have been detected. In the late years, with the enlightment of archeological studies carried out in Bismil, it has been seen that Kortipe, which dates back to 12.000 years, is one of the earliest settlement places in Near east.
Hurris, known as Subartus, (3000-1260 B.C), who has settled in upper sides of Firat and Tigris Rıvers in 3000 B.C., reign in the region. Iskan movement which began with Huris, and continued with Kumruklar and changed hands during Aramibit era between Assyrians and Urartular; after the coming of Saka-Iskit Turks, the region continuously changed hands between Meds, Persians, Macedonians, Selevkos and Romans. Later in 395 A.C. when East Roman dominance began, Akhuns were seen in the region. After VII century, Diyarbakir had been in the hands of Emevis, Abbasis, Hamdanis, Buveyhogullari, and Mervanogullari. There are many monuments that have come up today since Diyarbakir had met Islam. The state that was dominant in Diyarbakir had been Mervanogullari and the Seljuks and Artuklus eras. Later, the region was under dominance of Akkoyunlus and then Ottomans. Diyarbakir, that had been an important culture and trade center in each era, had been one of the most important and largest states during the Ottoman era. The monuments built at those times are still used today.