On southeast of Anatolian region, Diyarbakir, is located on 37.52 north latitudes and 40.13 east longtitudes. The city is surrounded by: Batman and Mus from east; Mardin from south; Sanliurfa, Adiyaman and Malatya on the west; Elazig and Bingol on the north. Surface shapes are pretty plain. It is in a form of a basin with a hole in the middle and surrounded by pitches. This hole, known as Diyarbakir basin, is formed of Tigris Valley in the east-west directions. The city is surrounded by Southeast Taurus Mountains from north. These mountains separate East Anatolian Region and Southeast Anatolia. There is Karacadag on the southeast of Diyarbakir basin. Karacadag is an old volcanic mass formed by the corruption of dark coloured lavs.
Harsh terrestrial climate is dominant in Diyarbakir. Summers are very warm and droughty while winters are very cold and rainy. The main reason why summers are very warm is, Taurus Mountains, stopping the cold winds coming from north. The average hottest month warmth is 31 degrees, and the average coldest month is 1.8 degrees.
The most important stream of the city is Tigris River. This stream, which comes out from the Elazig city borders, enters to Diyarbakir. It flows in a large stream in the city. It gets largest after leaving Diyarbakir’s borders. Some of the sub-projects in the extent of the GAP are in Tigris Basin.
Important sections, whose constructions are continuoing by the extent of GAP, such as: Karakaya, Devegecidi, Kral Kizi, and Tigris, are located surrounding Diyarbakir. Besides hydroelectrical energy, water gathered from dams provides new possibilities in agricultural areas.
Steppe forms the vegetation of the city. These plants become green and turn into flowers in a short time in spring but they dry out with the end of the rains